Most aircraft carriers do not require routine refueling. The eleven American and French aircraft carriers are nuclear-powered, which means they can sail continuously without refueling for twenty-five years. The first attempts to refuel and refuel at sea had been made as early as 1870, when the Captain of the HMS Canal Squadron was supplied with coal at a rate of five tons per hour. The speed was too slow to be practicable, and a calm climate was required to keep neighboring ships together.
Although its concept was rejected by the Admiralty, the advantages of such a system became evident to strategists on both sides of the Atlantic. Between 1888 and 1890 alone, more than 20 presentations were made to the RN. The RN embarked on more extensive tests in 1901 and achieved a rate of 19 tons per hour. To meet the requirement of a rate of at least 40 tonnes per hour, Miller implemented a number of improvements, such as improving cable tension maintenance, which allowed it to withstand heavier loads.
With the transition to oil as the main fuel for ships at sea, on-going refueling became feasible, as liquid could be pumped continuously, posing fewer problems than transferring solids. As a result of this test, the Burma greaser, which was launched in 1911, was the first grease gun to be built by order of the Admiralty and was designed to supply oil to destroyers both at sea and in port. In August and September 1911, Burma conducted offshore refueling tests in Portland with the destroyers HMS Mohawk, when 117 tons were transferred, with the HMS Swift, when 270 tons were transferred, and with the HMS Amazon, when 105 tons were transferred. Aft refueling was used again, this time using a hose that ran on wooden rollers suspended on stirrups of a tie rod.
A further improvement was the use of a floating rubber hose, which dragged in the sea between the two ships. Despite demonstrating that the concept was viable, the C-in-C Local Fleet reported that the use of tankers to grease destroyers at sea was unlikely to work and that further testing was unnecessary. As a result, the Royal Navy preferred to continue using fuel in port, rather than at sea until World War II. While during the interwar period most navies pursued refueling destroyers and other small vessels using the side or stern method, it was conventional wisdom that larger warships could not be effectively refueled aft or safely refueled at the stern cost, until a series of tests conducted by In 1939-1940, the now Rear Admiral Nimitz perfected the platforms and handling of the ship, which made it possible to refuel vessels of any size.
This was widely used as a logistical support technique in the Pacific theater of World War II, allowing the U.S. UU. Aircraft carrier task forces to remain at sea indefinitely. Because it allowed greater range and attack capacity for naval forces, the technique was classified so that enemy nations could not duplicate it.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. The Navy developed a multi-product supply ship that could deliver fuel, ammunition and warehouses while it was underway. These boats saw the introduction of a transfer system that utilizes a ram tensioner that keeps the high line between the boats taut, allowing for smooth transfer, as well as taking into account any movement of the boats. Over time, this method evolved into the standard parallel tensioned refueling (STREAM) method.
Navy also uses the spanwire, bye close in rig and spanline rig platform to transfer. The STREAM platform is preferred over other connected refueling methods, as it allows for greater separation between ships. Germany used specialized submarines (so-called dairy cows) to supply hunting submarines in the Atlantic during World War II. They needed both submarines to be stationary on the surface, took a long time to transfer the tents, and needed to be in radio contact with the refueled ship, making them easy targets.
Because of this, those that were not sunk soon withdrew from their supply function. While time and effort have been invested in refining ongoing refueling procedures, they remain hazardous operations. There are several methods for performing an ongoing replenishment. Parallel Connected Refueling (CONREP) is a standard method of transferring liquids, such as fuel and fresh water, along with ammunition and bulk products.
These boats saw the introduction of a transfer system that utilizes a ram tensioner that keeps the high line between boats taut, allowing for smooth transfer, as well as taking into account any movement of the boats in the water. The supply ship maintains a constant course and speed, generally between 12 and 16 knots. Moving at speed reduces relative movement due to wave action and allows better course control. The receiving ship then approaches the supplier at a distance of approximately 30 yards.
The provider fires a pistol line, a pneumatic line launcher, or a firing line, which is used to pull through a messenger line. This line is used to cross other equipment, such as a distance line, a telephone line, and transfer platform lines. As the command ship of the refueling operation, the supply vessel provides all the lines and equipment necessary for the transfer. In addition, all commands are directed from the supply ship.
Due to the relative position of ships, it is common for larger ships to install multiple transfer platforms, allowing for faster transfer or transfer of multiple types of stores. In addition, almost all refueling ships are configured to service two receivers at a time, with one refueling on each side. Coupled with connected refueling, it is a risky operation, since two or three boats that circulate side by side at speed must maintain exactly the same course and speed for a long period of time. In addition, the hydrodynamics of two boats that circulate together causes a suction between them.
A slight steering error on the part of one of the ships could cause a collision or separate the transfer lines and fuel hoses. At a speed of 12 knots, a 1 degree variation in heading will produce a lateral speed of around 20 feet per minute. For this reason, experienced and qualified helmsmen are required during replenishment, and the crew on the bridge must pay full attention to the course and speed of the ship. Risk increases when a refueling ship services two ships at a time.
In the event of an emergency, crews practice emergency escape procedures, in which ships will be separated in non-optimal situations. Although ships will be saved from collision, it is possible to lose stores, as ships may not be able to finish the current transfer. Following the successful completion of the replenishment, many U. Ships adopt the habit of playing a distinctive melody over the refueled ship's public address system when they separate from the supply ship.
In the Royal Australian Navy, it is customary for ships to fly a special flag during operation RAS, distinctive to each ship. Since many ships are named after Australian towns and cities, it is often the case that they fly flags of the AFL, NRL or A-League teams associated with that town or city. The waving of flags popularized by brands of beer or other alcoholic beverages is also not uncommon. The first type of refueling, rarely used today, is stern fueling.
In this method, the receiving ship follows directly behind the supplier ship. The fueling ship throws a marker buoy into the sea and the receiving ship parks with it. The delivery ship then drags a hose into the water that the fuel-receiving ship retrieves and connects to. This method is more limited, since only one transfer platform can be configured.
However, it is safer, since a slight heading error will not cause a collision. The Navy's experiments with Cuyama and Kanawha led the Navy to conclude that the fuel transfer rate was too slow to be useful. But the aft refueling method was used by the German and Japanese navies during World War II; and this method was still used by the Soviet Navy for many decades later. A third type of ongoing refueling is vertical refueling (VERTREP).
In this method, a helicopter lifts the load from the supplier ship and lowers it to the receiving ship. The main advantage of this method is that ships do not need to be dangerously close to each other, avoiding the risk of collision; VERTREP is also used to complement and accelerate the transfer of warehouses between ships carried out by CONREP. However, maximum load and transfer speeds are limited by helicopter capacity, and fuel and other bulk liquids cannot be efficiently delivered through VERTREP. RFA Tiderace performs dual RAS with two Royal Navy frigates.
Heavily defended targets, such as Al Taqqadum and the airfields around Baghdad, all known targets of the Gulf War, would likely overwhelm the range and self-defense capabilities of aircraft carriers. The myth that the aircraft carrier can provide effective firepower against all targets without ground aircraft on the scene has no basis in reality. Along the way, advanced presence requirements replaced warfare requirements as the primary factor in transport force sizing. In joint combat operations, the Commander of the Air Component of the Joint Force would need to integrate Nimitz incursions with those of other aircraft carriers or ground wings.
In addition to USAF ground operations, Marine Corps ground aircraft conducted 142 sorties (100 percent of the USMC contribution). Over the past decade, airline airlines' wings have become more capable, fueling increased demand for companies in joint operations. The Navy's Maritime Strategy, formally introduced in the early 1980s, required aircraft carriers to take a firm and advanced stance in key waters around the world, where they would be prepared to immediately go on the offensive against Soviet targets and attack Soviet warships. Aspin's 1993 BottomUp Review authorized 11 active training companies and one reserve, but Cohen's Quadrennial Defense Review was once again a requirement for 12 active companies.
In fact, the capabilities of aircraft carriers had improved and, without a doubt, aircraft carriers have been busy meeting the requirements of the station in the Mediterranean and the Gulf and showing strength in events such as the Taiwan Strait crisis of 1996.Navy aircraft carriers are a valuable tool, but their contribution to war must be judged against an air force standard, not just against a maritime control standard. In its most extreme form, the myth contains a statement that aircraft carriers can operate effectively without access to land bases, carry out sustained attacks against targets several hundred miles inland, and generate up to four incursions per attack aircraft per day if the warship and its air wing change mode overvoltage. For two weeks, in August and September 1995, NATO aircraft carried out a campaign to defend safe areas and degrade the military effectiveness of Bosnian Serbs by attacking targets around Sarajevo and throughout Serb-controlled territory in north-west Bosnia. An aircraft carrier's ability to project sustained firepower depended on generating numerous exits, and claims for high egress rates are key to the carrier myth.
From an operational point of view, the large deck aircraft carrier no longer functions primarily as a guardian of the high seas. The SURGEX concept postulated aircraft carriers that carried out incursions from one hour to 1.5 hours and made 200 departures every 24 hours. . .